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The bowler usually retreats a few yards (metres) behind the wicket, runs towards it (his run-up), and then releases the ball over-hand as he reaches the bowling crease. (If he crosses the crease before he releases the ball, or if he flexes his elbow too much in a throw, then it is a no ball, the batsman cannot be dismissed, and the batting team gets a penalty or extra run. If the ball passes the far wicket out of reach of the batsman then it is called a wide, also with an extra run.) The ball can be bowled so that it bounces on the pitch, lands exactly on the crease (a yorker), or crosses the crease without bouncing (a full toss).
The 19th century saw underarm bowling superseded by first roundarm and then overarm bowling. Both developments were controversial. Organisation of the game at county level led to the creation of the county clubs, starting with Sussex in 1839, which ultimately formed the official County Championship in 1890. Meanwhile, the British Empire had been instrumental in spreading the game overseas and by the middle of the 19th century it had become well established in India, North America, the Caribbean, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. In 1844, the first-ever international match took place between the United States and Canada. In 1859, a team of English players went to North America on the first overseas tour.
Cricket is played on a grassy field. The Laws of Cricket do not specify the size or shape of the field, but it is often oval. In the centre of the field is a rectangular strip, known as the pitch.
Batsmen come in to bat in a batting order, decided by the team captain usually after consulting the team coach, though the captain is not bound to consult the coach. The first two batsmen – the “openers” – usually face the hostile bowling from fresh fast bowlers with a new ball. The top batting positions are usually given to the most competent batsmen in the team, and the team’s bowlers – who are typically, but not always, less skilled as batsmen – typically bat last. The pre-announced batting order is not mandatory; when a wicket falls any player who has not yet batted may be sent in next.
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If a batsman “retires” (usually due to injury) and cannot return, he is actually “not out” and his retirement does not count as a dismissal, though in effect he has been dismissed because his innings is over. Substitute batsmen are not allowed.
Cricket is a bat and ball game, played between two teams of eleven players each. One team bats, attempting to score runs, while the other bowls and fields the ball, attempting to restrict the scoring and dismiss the batsmen. The objective of the game is for a team to score more runs than its opponent. In some forms of cricket, it is also necessary to dismiss the opposition in order to win the match, which would otherwise be drawn.
The innings (ending with ‘s’ in both singular and plural form) is the term used for the collective performance of the batting side. Sometimes all eleven members of the batting side take a turn to bat but, for various reasons, an innings can end before they have all done so. Depending on the type of match being played, each team has either one or two innings.
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The ICC has 104 members: 10 Full Members that play official Test matches, 34 Associate Members, and 60 Affiliate Members. The ICC is responsible for the organisation and governance of cricket’s major international tournaments, notably the Cricket World Cup. It also appoints the umpires and referees that officiate at all sanctioned Test matches, One Day International and Twenty20 Internationals. Each nation has a national cricket board which regulates cricket matches played in its country. The cricket board also selects the national squad and organises home and away tours for the national team. In the West Indies these matters are addressed by the West Indies Cricket Board which consists of members appointed by four national boards and two multi-national boards.
Another factor in cricket is the amount of light available. At grounds without floodlights (or in game formats which disallow the use of floodlights), umpires can stop play in the event of bad light as it becomes too difficult for the batsmen (and in extreme cases, fielders) to see the ball coming at them.
In the vast majority of cases, it is the striker who is out when a dismissal occurs. If the non-striker is dismissed it is usually by being run out, but he could also be dismissed for obstructing the field, handling the ball or being timed out.
Twenty20 is a new variant of limited overs itself with the purpose being to complete the match within about three hours, usually in an evening session. The original idea, when the concept was introduced in England in 2003, was to provide workers with an evening entertainment. It was commercially successful and has been adopted internationally. The inaugural Twenty20 World Championship was held in 2007 and won by India. Subsequent events have been held which were won by Pakistan , England , West Indies , and Sri Lanka . The next tournament is scheduled to be held in 2016. After the inaugural ICC World Twenty20 many domestic Twenty20 leagues were born. First of them was Indian Cricket League which was a rebel league since it was not authorized by BCCI. BCCI then formed its official league called the Indian Premier League. The official league went on to become a successful annual affair that attracted players and audience around the globe, while the Indian Cricket League has been disbanded. After the success of Indian Premier League, many other domestic leagues were formed globally. Recently the Twenty20 Champions League was formed as a tournament for domestic clubs of various countries. In this league, competition is between the top domestic teams from the senior cricketing nations.
There is a wide variety of shots played in cricket. The batsman’s repertoire includes strokes named according to the style of swing and the direction aimed: e.g., “cut”, “drive”, “hook”, “pull”.
The directions in which a right-handed batsman, facing down the page, intends to send the ball when playing various cricketing shots. The diagram for a left-handed batsman is a mirror image of this one.
Two different types of cricket balls: i) A used white ball. White balls are mainly used in limited overs cricket, especially in matches played at night, under floodlights (left). ii) A used red ball, Red balls are used in Test cricket and first-class cricket and some other forms of cricket (right). NB Both balls are the same size.
The pitch is a flat surface 10 feet (3.0 m) wide, with very short grass that tends to be worn away as the game progresses. At either end of the pitch, 22 yards (20 m) apart, are placed wooden targets, known as the wickets. These serve as a target for the bowling (also known as the fielding) side and are defended by the batting side, which seeks to accumulate runs.
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a cricket field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard-long pitch with a wicket (a set of three wooden stumps) at each end. One team bats, attempting to score as many runs as possible, whilst their opponents field. Each phase of play is called an innings. After either ten batsmen have been dismissed or a fixed number of overs have been completed, the innings ends and the two teams then swap roles. The winning team is the one that scores the most runs, including any extras gained, during their innings.
ReutersAustralia’s O’Keefe sanctioned for second drunken incidentAustralia spinner Stephen O’Keefe has been fined A$20,000 (12,041.42 pounds) and banned from a domestic one-day tournament after making “highly inappropriate comments” while under the influence of alcohol, Cricket Australia said on Friday. The incident happened at a Cricket New South Wales
In the UK, garden cricket is a popular version of the sport, played in gardens and on recreation grounds around the country by adults and children alike. Although a cricket bat and ball are generally used, other equipment such as pads and gloves are not. The exact rules will vary based on the number of participants and the available space.
A cricket match is divided into periods called innings (which ends with “s” in both singular and plural form). It is decided before the match whether the teams will have one innings or two innings each. During an innings one team fields and the other bats. The two teams switch between fielding and batting after each innings. All eleven members of the fielding team take the field, but only two members of the batting team (two batsmen) are on the field at any given time. The order of batsmen is usually announced just before the match, but it can be varied.
Hits for five are unusual and generally rely on the help of “overthrows” by a fielder returning the ball. If an odd number of runs is scored by the striker, the two batsmen have changed ends, and the one who was non-striker is now the striker. Only the striker can score individual runs, but all runs are added to the team’s total.
At each end of the pitch is a wooden target called a wicket; the two wickets are placed 22 yards (20 m) apart. The pitch is marked with painted lines: a bowling crease in line with the wicket, and a batting or popping crease four feet (122 cm) in front of it. The wicket is made of three vertical stumps supporting two small horizontal bails. A wicket is put down if at least one bail is dislodged, or one stump is knocked down (usually by the ball, but also if the batsman does it with his body, clothing or equipment). This is also described as breaking, knocking down, or hitting the wicket – though if the ball hits the wicket but does not dislodge a bail or stump then it is not considered to be down.
At any instant each batsman “owns” a particular wicket (usually the one closer to him) and, except when actually batting, is safe when he is in his ground. This means that at least one part of his body or bat is touching the ground behind the popping crease. If his wicket is put down while the ball is live and he is out of his ground then he is dismissed, but the other batsman is safe.
The bowler bowls the ball in sets of six deliveries (or “balls”) and each set of six balls is called an over. This name came about because the umpire calls “Over!” when six balls have been bowled. At this point, another bowler is deployed at the other end, and the fielding side changes ends while the batsmen do not. A bowler cannot bowl two successive overs, although a bowler can (and usually does) bowl alternate overs, from the same end, for several overs. The batsmen do not change ends at the end of the over, and so the one who was non-striker is now the striker and vice versa. (Sometimes when one of the two batsmen is a much stronger player than the other, he tries to score a single run from the last ball of the over so that he can remain “on strike”.) The umpires also change positions so that the one who was at square leg now stands behind the wicket at the non-striker’s end and vice versa.
If the batsman hits the ball over the field boundary without the ball touching the field, the batting team scores six runs. If the ball touches the ground and then reaches the boundary, the batting team scores four runs. The batsmen might have started running before the ball reaches the boundary, but those runs do not count.
The bowler reaches his delivery stride by means of a “run-up”, although some bowlers with a very slow delivery take no more than a couple of steps before bowling. A fast bowler needs momentum and takes quite a long run-up, running very fast as he does so.
Cricket has had a broad impact on popular culture, both in the Commonwealth of Nations and elsewhere. Cricket has had an influence on the lexicon of these nations, especially the English language, with such phrases as “that’s not cricket” (unfair), “had a good innings”, “sticky wicket”, and “bowled over”. There have been many cricket films. The term “Bradmanesque” from Don Bradman’s name has become a generic term for outstanding excellence, both within cricket and in the wider world.
Standard limited overs cricket was introduced in England in the 1963 season in the form of a knockout cup contested by the first-class county clubs. In 1969, a national league competition was established. The concept was gradually introduced to the other leading cricket countries and the first limited overs international was played in 1971. In 1975, the first Cricket World Cup took place in England. Limited overs cricket has seen various innovations including the use of multi-coloured kit and floodlit matches using a white ball. A “one day match”, named so because each match is scheduled for completion in a single day, is the common form of limited overs cricket played on an international level. In practice, matches sometimes continue on a second day if they have been interrupted or postponed by bad weather. The main objective of a limited overs match is to produce a definite result and so a conventional draw is not possible, but matches can be undecided if the scores are tied or if bad weather prevents a result. Each team plays one innings only and faces a limited number of overs, usually a maximum of 50. The Cricket World Cup is held in one day format and the last World Cup in 2015 was won by the co-hosts, Australia. The next World Cup will be hosted by England and Wales in 2019.
Pakistan Test captain Misbah-ul-Haq has revealed that he will retire from international cricket after the three-match series against West Indies. Misbah, who had previously retired from one-day international cricket in 2015, announced his decision at a press conference on Thursday (6 April). ”
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Four lines, known as creases, are painted onto the pitch around the wicket areas to define the batsman’s “safe territory” and to determine the limit of the bowler’s approach. These are called the “popping” (or batting) crease, the bowling crease and two “return” creases.
International Business TimesPakistan’s Misbah-ul-Haq to retire from Test cricket following West Indies seriesPakistan Test captain Misbah-ul-Haq has revealed that he will retire from international cricket after the three-match series against West Indies. Misbah, who had previously retired from one-day international cricket in 2015, announced his decision at a press conference on Thursday (6 April). ”
A number of words have been suggested as sources for the term “cricket”. In the earliest definite reference to the sport in 1598 it is called creckett. One possible source for the name is the Old English cricc or cryce meaning a crutch or staff. In Samuel Johnson’s Dictionary, he derived cricket from “cryce, Saxon, a stick”. In Old French, the word criquet seems to have meant a kind of club or stick.
The batsman tries to prevent the ball from hitting the wicket by striking the ball with his bat. (This includes the handle of the bat, and his gloves.) If the bowler succeeds in putting down the wicket the batsman is dismissed and is said to be bowled out. If the batsman misses the ball, but any part of his body prevents it from reaching the wicket, then he is out leg before wicket, or “LBW”.
At any one time, there are two batsmen in the playing area. One takes station at the striker’s end to defend the wicket as above and to score runs if possible. His partner, the non-striker, is at the end where the bowler is operating.
The laws of cricket are maintained by the International Cricket Council (ICC) and the Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC). There are various formats ranging from Twenty20, played over a few hours with each team having a single innings of 20 overs (i.e. 120 deliveries), to Test cricket, played over five days with unlimited overs and the teams playing two innings apiece. Traditionally cricketers play in all-white kit, but in limited overs cricket they wear club or team colours. In addition to the basic kit, some players wear protective gear to prevent injury caused by the ball, which is a hard, solid object made of compressed leather enclosing a cork core.